Discover more from Meaning In History
Big Picture Historical Background Re Palestine War
My impression is that for most Westerners the current war in Palestine—which pits the Israeli government, with its plans for the ethnic cleansing of all Palestinian controlled areas, against Hamas fighters, but also targeting the civilian Palestinian population—dates back to around 1948. In fact, this war is a continuation of the British Empire’s global colonial project, updated with some major new players, like the American Empire. As such, it’s larger context includes British designs to use Germany against both the French and Russians—which continues to day with the UK’s proxy war against Russia, using the American Empire as its proxy.
Today I came across a rather handy twitter thread that provides the background to much of this. What’s useful about this is that it places the history within a broader context—including the Arab struggle to free itself from outside, non-Arab, powers that used the Arabs as pawns in their power games: Western, Turkish, Iranian. Without that context it’s difficult to understand the Arab perspective in particular, although that perspective has expanded to include non-Arab Muslim countries.
Also important is the perspective the thread provides regarding the British Imperial ideology. That ideology is eschatological in character, a trait which the succeeding American Imperial ideology shares. The current war is the conflict between those forces, with the addition of Zionist ideology and the rise of the non-Western world. But the background involves British plans to use World War One to expand the British Empire (with American help). Please also pay careful attention to British views regarding Germany and the use of Germany against Russia.
I’ve removed most of the photos to fit the thread in here and I’ve also inserted links.
The armed conflict in Israel today, which threatens to become World War III, is the continuation of almost a century of British-staged armed conflict between Arab and Jew that dates back to the Nebi Musa riots of 1920.
Ze’ev Jabotinsky & Chaim Weizmann [two key figures in the history of Zionism] were both witting champions of the British Empire — instruments of Lord Alfred Milner and Leo Amery — the final authors of the Balfour Declaration, who craftily used them to secure British rule over Palestine as part of the 1916 Sykes-Picot agreements.
The British also created and controlled the leaders of Arab nationalist movements. They owned Haj Amin al-Husseini, a young radical, funded his religious network and social organizations, and created the post of Grand Mufti of Jerusalem for him.
Nebi Musa riots lasted several days. 5 Jews & 4 Arabs were killed, 216 Jews & 23 Arabs were wounded. Jabotinsky & Husseini were made public heroes by their British controllers. The die was cast, but the stage for the conflict had already been set decades before.
Palestine had been a necessary imperial target of acquisition for consolidation of the Empire for more than half a century before Sykes-Picot agreements, dating back to the 1830s and the efforts of Lord Shaftsbury and Lord Palmerston, master of cultural and political warfare.
Shaftsbury was a Christian Zionist & British Israelite, who believed that Jews must return to Zion before there could be the second coming of Christ. He opposed Jewish civil emancipation in England, was anti-Semitic but believed it was Britain’s destiny to establish Zion.
Palmerston offered the Sultan of Turkey British help in putting down an 1838 Arab revolt in Greater Syria. In return, Britain was given the right to establish a vice-consulate in Jerusalem — beachhead for the Empire. British decided to use a fledgling Zionist movement as their proxy.
The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 massively increased efficiency & shortened time of travel, putting an even higher premium on Britain’s securing a base of operations in Palestine, as a northern defense of the canal.
One of Britain’s motives in starting WWI was to finally secure Palestine with Sykes-Picot and the breakup of the Ottoman Empire. No longer would the British have to entreat the Turks to accept the Jewish immigrants, which in British eyes were only surrogates for their empire.
Jabotinsky was a wholly owned and created asset of the British Empire, controlled by a political network led by Leo Amery, who became Britain’s most prominent Imperial spokesman and political organizer. Amery’s circle included Cecil Rhodes and Alfred Milner.
Amery’s vision was that of Rhodes. The British plan to dismember the US in the Civil War had failed bitterly. Rhodes, a rabid British race imperialist, had amassed his fortune through the exploration and mining of gold in Africa.
Rhodes wanted the “establishment, promotion & development of a Secret Society, the true aim & object whereof shall be for extension of British rule throughout the world, perfecting of a system of emigration from the UK, and of colonisation by British subjects of all lands and especially the entire continent of Africa, Holy Land, Valley of Euphrates, the whole of South America, Islands of the Pacific not heretofore possessed by Great Britain, seaboard of China & Japan, ultimate recovery of the USA as an integral part of the British Empire.”
Rhodes’ secret society & how it operated are detailed in Carroll Quigley’s Anglo-American Establishment. Quigley describes British power elite at turn of century. They combined press, created political institutions & used financial power to affect policy.
Elite consisted of Venetian Cecil family; political & financial trustees of Rhodes’ Trust; various banking institutions + British royal family. Quigley describes a small inner core of collaborators from Britain’s aristocracy and financial elite.
They had 1 major enemy: the American System of Political Economy. It threatened the existence of British Empire, which depended on a mercantilist system of securing cheap raw materials from colonized, backward parts of world, shipped to England for industrial production and military use.
At the turn of the century, there were two powers in the world that represented the American system: the United States of America, and Germany, which had built its economy on the model of America’s great economist Henry C. Carey.
Following stipulations of Rhodes’ Will, his collaborators sparked WWI to dismantle a threatening Germany, carve up Europe, secure + expand colonial holdings by acquiring much of Ottoman Empire, giving them its oil holdings + secure Palestine as military buffer to Suez Canal.
In order to accomplish these goals, they also worked non-stop to trap the United States into collaborating with their warring schemes and sought to diminish America’s industrial economy from within.
Lord Milner, British High Commissioner for Africa, had won the Boer War, united South Africa as one political entity under British rule giving Britain looting rights for most important raw materials in Africa. He derived much power from these accomplishments.
Concentration Camps Existed Long Before Auschwitz: From Cuba to South Africa, the advent of barbed wire & automatic weapons allowed the few to imprison the many. During the Boer War, Brits relocated 200k+ civilians behind barbed wire into improvised huts. https://smithsonianmag.com/history/concentration-camps-existed-long-before-Auschwitz-180967049/…
At the close of the Boer War, Milner recruited a group from Oxford University to assist him in establishing British rule in Africa. He recruited them to his philosophy and became each and every one’s mentor. Known as Milner’s Kindergarten, they would play a major role in both WWI and WWII.
As WWI approached, Rhodes’ secret society, under Milner went to work. Both Liberal & Conservative, they held in common a rabid racial imperialism. For propaganda purposes, they created RIIA, [Chatham House, The Royal Institute of International Affairs] purchased Times of London, ran crucial press organs to rally public behind their aims.
To understand today’s Likud + right wing in Israel, one must understand Amery & Milner + their role in shaping the British Empire. They used Zionism to secure oilfields of Middle East + defense of Suez Canal. They stated this openly, as did their Christian Zionist supporters.
Leo Amery’s son, Julian, described his father in The Empire at Bay, Notes from the Leo Amery Diaries (1988). British Imperialism “was a civilizing mission to which British peoples could dedicate themselves: one from which they would derive a sense of purpose & source of pride.”
“This concept of Empire was much more than a political programme. It was an ideology that constituted a coherent system of thought to which every issue, political, economic, social, cultural, and even moral could be related. More than that, it was a faith.”
“This faith would sustain [Leo Amery] throughout his entire life.” In Leo Amery’s own words, this faith and concept of Empire, with its responsibility for “civilizing other cultures,” was mandated by God.
Amery is famously quoted as saying: “The Empire is not external to any of the British nation. It is something like the Kingdom of Heaven within ourselves.”
Amery was recruited by Milner in South Africa while reporting on Boer War & was known as Milner’s mouthpiece. A few years before Cecil Rhodes’ death in 1902, Rhodes discussed with Amery the Rhodes Trust & scholarship fund to recruit young men to attend a special program at Oxford.
Scholarships would be awarded to select students from British Dominions, Germany, & the US, with the proportion heavily weighted to US recipients. The overt purpose was to recruit American support for the British Empire. Amery ran Rhodes’ Trust from 1933 until his death in 1955.
While at Oxford, Amery founded a branch of the Fabian Society & established a close relationship with the Fabians Sidney and Beatrice Webb. He also came under the hegemony of Joseph Chamberlain, to become the leading spokesman for a tariff policy to secure advancement of the Empire.
In 1902, he and the Webbs founded the Coefficients, a secret dining club of Liberal and Conservative imperialists including:
Sir Clinton Dawkins
Prof. W.A.S. Hewins
Their intent was to create a Brains Trust that would make government policy. Amery’s area of expertise was the military. He presented the reorganization plans for the Army that would allow the British to fight World War I.
“Most of the members, in fact, shocked me profoundly. I remember Amery’s eyes gleaming with blood-lust at the thought of a war with America, in which as he said with exultation, we should have to arm the whole adult male population...” — Bertrand Russell
In 1910, Amery married Florence Greenwood. Her father emigrated from Wales to Canada, married into family of American colonists who sided with British during Revolution. Her family was fiercely loyal to United Empire Loyalists with almost fanatical reverence for British Crown.
On June 11, 1916, less than a month after the secret Sykes-Picot treaty was signed, Milner was given a full page in the NYT to make the case that US should partner with the British Empire. Milner knew of secret agreements with the French to move the war to Palestine + carving up the Ottoman Empire between the two.
The US had already entered the war on the side of the British & as the US would provide the margin of victory, it would have a major say in the settlement of the peace. Milner, the man in pursuit of carrying out Cecil Rhodes’ Last Will and Testament, was about to join a War Cabinet with PM David Lloyd George.
The secret agreement to move the war to the eastern front would give Britain control over Palestine, providing a military buffer to the Suez Canal. Palestine would also provide a deepwater port (Haifa) on the Mediterranean for the export of oil. Milner needed Americans on his side for plan to succeed.
“What I especially stand for is the closest possible union between the States under the British Crown... there must never be another serious quarrel between the States & England. I believe the greatest disaster in human history was the split which separated American colonies, from the home country.” — Milner
“I am sure that those in the United States who are familiar with the facts of British Government in India, would never wish to see that Government replaced by a Government of Junkers. I was ultra-British—an out and out British Imperialist” — Milner
A March 18, 1917 entry in Beatrice Webb’s diary describes Milner’s more private thoughts. Webb’s entry is made at the conclusion of a briefing she was given by Tom Jones, then acting secretary to the Cabinet Committee on Territorial Terms of Peace. Milner was chairman of this committee.
“There is a vivid movement, guided by Milner & served by Amery, to prepare for another war, to complete the ruin of Germany & domination of the British Empire. This gang of Power worshippers are running down Russian revolution & minimising entry of US as one of the belligerents.”
“They are bent on maintaining a ruling caste of a ruling race: they fear & despise democracy. Any aspirations towards self-government among British subjects, who do not already possess it, is sedition to be put down by machine guns and plentiful hangings.”
Milner’s private papers give credence to this report. After colonizing Southern Africa, he wrote: “I believe in a lot of virtual-self-government in the new Colonies without letting the supreme control out of Imperial hands.”
Amery’s view was similar: “South Africa must develop as a white man’s country under the guidance of white men, and not as a bastard country like most of South America”
“In five hundred years’ time I expect the South African white man will contain a strong dark blend, and the end of all things may be a brown South African race. There should not be too quick a mixture now or for the next few centuries.” — Amery
Amery’s civil career in Britain’s Imperial Command was illustrious, varied, and colored throughout by sympathy for fascism. He joined Milner as an undersecretary at the War Cabinet, where he first met both Jabotinsky and Weizmann.
When Milner became Secretary of State for Colonies in 1919, Amery was posted as his Under-Secretary. In 1922, he joined Privy Council & was appointed First Lord of Admiralty. In 1925 he was given post of Dominions Secretary in charge of #Palestine Mandate, held until 1929.
As Quigley reports, the policy of the Milner group was to re-arm Germany to go east to destroy Russia. Statements to that effect are included in Amery’s diaries. In August 1935 Amery gave Hitler his advice on how to strengthen the German economy.
Amery was an intimate of Reichsbank president & Hitler’s Economics Minister Hjalmar Schacht. Schacht told Lord Lothian that Amery said British were not interested in allowing Germany to have her colonies back, but there was no reason Germany couldn’t go east to build up economy.
Thanks for reading Meaning In History! Subscribe for free to receive new posts and support my work.